/* ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** Replication do-file online appendix ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** Ecologies of ideologies. Explaining party entry and exit in West-European parliaments, 1945-2013 By: Marc van de Wardt, Joost Berkhout & Floris Vermeulen */ ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** //PARTY EXIT ANALYSES ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** use "[Working directory]\Replication data\exit replication data.dta", clear /*Operationalizations*/ ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** *party_id --> Party identification number from Parlgov *cntry --> country *elec_year --> year of election *death --> 1 Party will not reappear in any future election, 0 Party will reappear *death2 --> Alternative operationalization of party exit (see section 2.2 of online appendix) *left --> Party is located in left-wing niche *centrist --> Party is located in centrist niche *right --> Party is located in right-wing niche *left_1z --> Party is located in left-wing niche when alternative cutt-off criteria are used to define the niches (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *centrist_1z --> Party is located in centrist niche when alternative cutt-off criteria are used to define the niches (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *right_1z --> Party is located in right-wing niche when alternative cutt-off criteria are used to define the niches (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *left_abs --> Party is located in left-wing niche when parties are assigned to niches on the basis of their absolute left-right position (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *centrist_abs --> Party is located in centrist niche when parties are assigned to niches on the basis of their absolute left-right position (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *right_abs --> Party is located in right-wing niche when parties are assigned to niches on the basis of their absolute left-right position (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *leftdens --> Number of parties in the left-wing niche *leftdens_1z --> Number of parties in the left-wing niche on the basis of left_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *leftdens_abs --> Number of parties in the left-wing niche on the basis of left_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *centristdens --> Number of parties in the centrist niche *centristdens_1z --> Number of parties in the centrist niche on the basis of centrist_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *centristdens_abs --> Number of parties in the centrist niche on the basis of centrist_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *rightdens --> Number of parties in the right-wing niche *rightdens_1z --> Number of parties in the right-wing niche on the basis of right_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *rightdens_abs --> Number of parties in the right-wing niche on the basis of right_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *ENMI_left --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the left-wing niche *ENMI_left_1z --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the left-wing niche on the basis of left_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *ENMI_left_abs --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the left-wing niche on the basis of left_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *ENPF_left --> The effective number of party families within the left-wing niche *ENPF_left_1z --> The effective number of party families within the left-wing niche on the basis of left_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *ENPF_left_abs --> The effective number of party families within the left-wing niche on the basis of left_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *ENMI_centrist --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the centrist niche *ENMI_centrist_1z --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the centrist niche on the basis of centrist_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *ENMI_centrist_abs --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the centrist niche on the basis of centrist_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *ENPF_centrist --> The effective number of party families within the centrist niche *ENPF_centrist_1z --> The effective number of party families within the centrist niche on the basis of centrist_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *ENPF_centrist_abs --> The effective number of party families within the centrist niche on the basis of centrist_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *ENMI_right --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the right-wing niche *ENMI_right_1z --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the right-wing niche on the basis of right_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *ENMI_right_abs --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the right-wing niche on the basis of right_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *ENPF_right --> The effective number of party families within the right-wing niche *ENPF_right_1z --> The effective number of party families within the right-wing niche on the basis of right_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *ENPF_right_abs --> The effective number of party families within the right-wing niche on the basis of right_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *vot_left --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the left-wing niche in the year before the election *vot_left_abs --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the left-wing niche in the year before the election on the basis of left_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *vot_centrist --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the centrist niche in the year before the election *vot_centrist_abs --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the centrist niche in the year before the election on the basis of centrist_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *vot_right --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the right-wing niche in the year before the election *vot_right_abs --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the right-wing niche in the year before the election on the basis of right_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *government --> 1 party entered/stayed in government after election t, 0 party entered/stayed in opposition (source: parlgov) *agesquareroot --> The square root of the number of years a party has existed since its foundation *lsq --> Gallagher (1991, Electoral Studies) least square index of party system disproportionality *eneg --> Fearon index of effective number of ethnic groups (from Clark and Golder 2006 CPS replication dataset) *reg_cost --> Registration costs (from Tavits 2006 Party Politics replication dataset) *party_fin --> Public financing of parties (from Tavits 2006 Party Politics replication dataset) *ln_petit --> Petition logged (from Tavits 2006 Party Politics replication dataset) *integration --> Degree of corporatism (from Tavits 2006 Party Politics replication dataset) *duradem --> Number of democratic elections since World War 2 *_spline* --> 3 splines that were created to capture hazard ratio of exit (see Beck et al. 1998 AJPS) ******************************************************************************************************************************************************* /*Drop final available elections*/ *The final available elections for each country are excluded from the party exit analyses, as logically, we cannot know yet for which parties these elections turned out to be their last. Put differently, the dependent variable would always equal 0 (alive) if the final available elections would be included. drop if elec_year==final_election_parlgov /*Define cross-sections and time variable*/ tsset party_id counter //Table A1, model 1 logistic death leftdens centristdens rightdens lsq eneg ENPF_left ENMI_left _spline* if left==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A1, model 2 logistic death2 leftdens centristdens rightdens agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_left ENMI_left if left==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A1, model 3 logistic death leftdens_1z centristdens_1z rightdens_1z agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_left_1z ENMI_left_1z if left_1z==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A1, model 4 logistic death leftdens centristdens rightdens lsq eneg ENPF_centrist ENMI_centrist _spline* if centrist==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A1, model 5 logistic death2 leftdens centristdens rightdens agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_centrist ENMI_centrist if centrist==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A1, model 6 logistic death leftdens_1z centristdens_1z rightdens_1z agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_centrist_1z ENMI_centrist_1z if centrist_1z==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A1, model 7 logistic death leftdens centristdens rightdens lsq eneg ENPF_right ENMI_right _spline* if right==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A1, model 8 logistic death2 leftdens centristdens rightdens agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_right ENMI_right if right==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A1, model 9 logistic death leftdens_1z centristdens_1z rightdens_1z agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_right_1z ENMI_right_1z if right_1z==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A4, model 1 logistic death leftdens centristdens rightdens agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_left ENMI_left vot_left reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem government gdp_grow if left==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A4, model 2 logistic death leftdens_abs centristdens_abs rightdens_abs agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_left_abs ENMI_left_abs vot_left_abs reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem if left_abs==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A4, model 3 logistic death leftdens centristdens rightdens agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_centrist ENMI_centrist vot_centrist reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem government gdp_grow if centrist==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A4, model 4 logistic death leftdens_abs centristdens_abs rightdens_abs agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_centrist_abs ENMI_centrist_abs vot_centrist_abs reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem if centrist_abs==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A4, model 5 logistic death leftdens centristdens rightdens agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_right ENMI_right vot_right reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem government gdp_grow if right==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A4, model 6 logistic death leftdens_abs centristdens_abs rightdens_abs agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_right_abs ENMI_right_abs vot_right_abs reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem if right_abs==1, robust cluster(party_id) ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** //PARTY ENTRY ANALYSES ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** use "[Working directory]\Replication data\entry replication data.dta", clear /*Operationalizations*/ ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** *cntry --> country *cntry_elec --> election id *elec_year --> year of election *totleftbirth --> Number of newly entered parties in left-wing niche *totcentristbirth --> Number of newly entered parties in centrist niche *totrightbirth --> Number of newly entered parties in right-wing niche *totleftbirth2 --> Alternative operationalization of party entry (see section 2.2 of online appendix) *totcentristbirth2 --> Alternative operationalization of party entry (see section 2.2 of online appendix) *totrightbirth2 --> Alternative operationalization of party entry(see section 2.2 of online appendix) *totleftbirth_1z --> Number of newly entered parties in left-wing niche when alternative cutt-off criteria are used to define the niches (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *totcentristbirth_1z --> Number of newly entered parties in centrist niche when alternative cutt-off criteria are used to define the niches (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *totrightbirth2_1z --> Number of newly entered parties in right-wing niche when alternative cutt-off criteria are used to define the niches (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *totleftbirth_abs --> Number of newly entered parties in left-wing niche when parties are assigned to niches on the basis of their absolute left-right position (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *totcentristbirth_abs --> Number of newly entered parties in centrist niche when parties are assigned to niches on the basis of their absolute left-right position (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *totrightbirth2_abs --> Number of newly entered parties in right-wing niche when parties are assigned to niches on the basis of their absolute left-right position (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *lleftdens --> Number of parties in the left-wing niche during previous election *lleftdens_1z --> Number of parties in the left-wing niche during previous election on the basis of left_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *lleftdens_abs --> Number of parties in the left-wing niche during previous election on the basis of left_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *lcentristdens --> Number of parties in the centrist niche during previous election *lcentristdens_1z --> Number of parties in the centrist niche during previous election on the basis of centrist_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *lcentristdens_abs --> Number of parties in the centrist niche during previous election on the basis of centrist_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *lrightdens --> Number of parties in the right-wing niche during previous election *lrightdens_1z --> Number of parties in the right-wing niche during previous electionon the basis of right_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *lrightdens_abs --> Number of parties in the right-wing niche during previous election on the basis of right_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *lENMI_left --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the left-wing niche during previous election *lENMI_left_1z --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties during previous election within the left-wing niche on the basis of left_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *lENMI_left_abs --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties during previous election within the left-wing niche on the basis of left_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *lENPF_left --> The effective number of party families within the left-wing niche during previous election *lENPF_left_1z --> The effective number of party families within the left-wing niche during previous election on the basis of left_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *lENPF_left_abs --> The effective number of party families within the left-wing niche during previous election on the basis of left_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *lENMI_centrist --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the centrist niche during previous election *lENMI_centrist_1z --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the centrist niche during previous election on the basis of centrist_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *lENMI_centrist_abs --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the centrist niche during previous election on the basis of centrist_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *lENPF_centrist --> The effective number of party families within the centrist niche during previous election *lENPF_centrist_1z --> The effective number of party families within the centrist niche during previous election on the basis of centrist_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *lENPF_centrist_abs --> The effective number of party families within the centrist niche during previous election on the basis of centrist_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *lENMI_right --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the right-wing niche during previous election *lENMI_right_1z --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the right-wing niche during previous election on the basis of right_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *lENMI_right_abs --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the right-wing niche during previous election on the basis of right_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *lENPF_right --> The effective number of party families within the right-wing niche during previous election *lENPF_right_1z --> The effective number of party families within the right-wing niche during previous election on the basis of right_1z (see section 2.3 of online appendix) *lENPF_right_abs --> The effective number of party families within the right-wing niche during previous election on the basis of right_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *vot_left --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the left-wing niche in the previous elections *vot_left_abs --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the left-wing niche in the previous elections on the basis of left_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *vot_centrist --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the centrist niche in the previous elections *vot_centrist_abs --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the centrist niche in the previous elections on the basis of centrist_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *vot_right --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the right-wing niche in the previous elections *vot_right_abs --> The percentage of the electorate placing themselves within the right-wing niche in the previous elections on the basis of right_abs (see section 3.2 of online appendix) *lsq --> Gallagher (1991, Electoral Studies) least square index of party system disproportionality *eneg --> Fearon index of effective number of ethnic groups (from Clark and Golder 2006 CPS replication dataset) *reg_cost --> Registration costs (from Tavits 2006 Party Politics replication dataset) *party_fin --> Public financing of parties (from Tavits 2006 Party Politics replication dataset) *ln_petit --> Petition logged (from Tavits 2006 Party Politics replication dataset) *integration --> Degree of corporatism (from Tavits 2006 Party Politics replication dataset) *duradem --> Number of democratic elections since World War 2 *gdp_grow --> Change in GDP (from Tavits 2006 Party Politics replication dataset) *ltotleftgov --> Number of government parties within left-wing niche during previous election (see section 2.5 of online appendix) *ltotcentristgov --> Number of government parties within centrist niche during previous election (see section 2.5 of online appendix) *ltotrightgov --> Number of government parties within right-wing niche during previous election (see section 2.5 of online appendix) ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** /*Define cross-sections and time variable*/ tsset cntry cntry_elec //Table A2, model 1 xtpoisson totleftbirth2 lleftdens lcentristdens lrightdens lsq eneg lENPF_left lENMI_left , irr //Table A2, model 2 xtpoisson totleftbirth_1z lleftdens_1z lcentristdens_1z lrightdens_1z lsq eneg lENPF_left_1z lENMI_left_1z , irr //Table A2, model 3 xtpoisson totcentristbirth2 lleftdens lcentristdens lrightdens lsq eneg lENPF_centrist lENMI_centrist , irr //Table A2, model 4 xtnbreg totcentristbirth_1z lleftdens_1z lcentristdens_1z lrightdens_1z lsq eneg lENPF_centrist_1z lENMI_centrist_1z , irr /*note: dispersion parameter (alpha) signifcantly differs from zero, so we opt for xtnbreg instead of xtpoisson, as the latter cannot deal with over-dispersion (see Hausman et al. 1984) To verify, run: xtpoisson totcentristbirth_1z lleftdens_1z lcentristdens_1z lrightdens_1z lsq eneg lENPF_centrist_1z lENMI_centrist_1z , irr When the overdispersion parameter is zero the negative binomial distribution is equivalent to a poisson distribution. In this case, alpha is significantly different from zero (p=.000) and thus reinforces that the poisson distribution is not appropriate. */ //Table A2, model 5 xtpoisson totrightbirth2 lleftdens lcentristdens lrightdens lsq eneg lENPF_right lENMI_right , irr //Table A2, model 6 xtpoisson totrightbirth_1z lleftdens_1z lcentristdens_1z lrightdens_1z lsq eneg lENPF_right_1z lENMI_right_1z , irr //Table A5, model 1 xtpoisson totleftbirth lleftdens lcentristdens lrightdens lsq eneg lENPF_left lENMI_left vot_left reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem ltotleftgov gdp_grow , irr //Table A5, model 2 xtpoisson totleftbirth_abs lleftdens_abs lcentristdens_abs lrightdens_abs lsq eneg lENPF_left_abs lENMI_left_abs vot_left_abs reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem , irr //Table A5, model 3 xtpoisson totcentristbirth lleftdens lcentristdens lrightdens lsq eneg lENPF_centrist lENMI_centrist vot_centrist reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem ltotcentristgov gdp_grow , irr //Table A5, model 4 xtpoisson totcentristbirth_abs lleftdens_abs lcentristdens_abs lrightdens_abs lsq eneg lENPF_centrist_abs lENMI_centrist_abs vot_centrist_abs reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem , irr //Table A5, model 5 xtpoisson totrightbirth lleftdens lcentristdens lrightdens lsq eneg lENPF_right lENMI_right vot_right reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem ltotrightgov gdp_grow , irr //Table A5, model 6 xtpoisson totrightbirth_abs lleftdens_abs lcentristdens_abs lrightdens_abs lsq eneg lENPF_right_abs lENMI_right_abs vot_right_abs reg_cost party_fin ln_petit integration duradem , irr ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** //NICHE SWITCHING ANALYSES ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** use "[Working directory]\Replication data\niche switching replication data.dta", clear /*Operationalizations*/ ***************************************************************************************************************************************************** *switchnextelec --> 1 if a party will change to a different niche in the next election 0 if it will stay in its niche *left --> Party is located in left-wing niche *centrist --> Party is located in centrist niche *right --> Party is located in right-wing niche *leftdens --> Number of parties in the left-wing niche *centristdens --> Number of parties in the centrist niche *rightdens --> Number of parties in the right-wing niche *agesquareroot --> The square root of the number of years a party has existed since its foundation *lsq --> Gallagher (1991, Electoral Studies) least square index of party system disproportionality *eneg --> Fearon index of effective number of ethnic groups (from Clark and Golder 2006 CPS replication dataset) *ENPF_left --> The effective number of party families within the left-wing niche *ENPF_centrist --> The effective number of party families within the centrist niche *ENPF_right --> The effective number of party families within the right-wing niche *ENMI_left --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the left-wing niche *ENMI_centrist --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the centrist niche *ENMI_right --> The effective number of issues emphasized by parties within the right-wing niche ******************************************************************************************************************************************************* //Table A3, model 1 logistic switchnextelec leftdens rightdens centristdens agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_left ENMI_left if left==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A3, model 2 logistic switchnextelec leftdens rightdens centristdens agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_centrist ENMI_centrist if centrist==1, robust cluster(party_id) //Table A3, model 3 logistic switchnextelec leftdens rightdens centristdens agesquareroot lsq eneg ENPF_right ENMI_right if right==1, robust cluster(party_id)